Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. It is endemic throughout the country and is reportedly responsible for 60% of outpatient visits, 30% of childhood deaths, 25% of deaths under one year, and 11% of maternal deaths.
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with a projected total population of approximately 205 million for 2018 and an estimated annual growth rate of about 3.2%. It comprises six geopolitical zones (North West, North East, North Central, South West, South South, and South East), 36 states (plus the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja), 774 local government areas (LGAs) with an average population of about 265,793 residents per LGA, and 8,812 wards. Each state has an elected governor, an executive council, and a house of assembly with the power to enact state laws. State governments have substantial autonomy and exercise considerable authority over the allocation and utilization of their resources, limiting the influence of the federal government over state and local government affairs. Nigeria is ranked 152 out of 188 countries in the 2015 United Nations Development Program Human Development Index. The 2015 ranking represents a two-point positive change since the 2009 ranking. Under-five mortality is estimated at 128 per 1,000 live births and maternal mortality is estimated at 576 per 100,000 live births according to 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Nearly all health and socioeconomic indicators in the south of the country are significantly better than in the north. For example, under-five mortality rates are about one and a half times higher and maternal mortality rates are three times higher in some northern zones than in the rest of the country. The South West Zone has the lowest under-five mortality. The country’s gross domestic product increased during the past decade, with oil revenues as the main driver of the economy. However, falling oil and gas prices in the world market is affecting the Nigeria economy and the local currency, the Naira, has come under severe pressure recently, which is linked to the decrease in supply of petrodollars. Overall, economic growth of the past decade has not improved the welfare of the majority of the population nor has it affected the high incidence of poverty. Malaria is transmitted throughout Nigeria, with 97% of the population at risk. Five ecological zones define the intensity and seasonality of transmission and mosquito vector species: mangrove swamps, rain forest, Guinea-savannah, Sudan-savannah, and Sahel-savannah. These various ecological zones with mosaics are distinguished by rainfall and other climatic conditions. The rainfall duration ranges from about three months in the Sahel-savannah to nine months in the Mangrove forest. These climatic patterns affect vegetation and most flora and fauna are differentiated across the ecological zones.
Source: National Population Commission (Nigeria), Federal Ministry of Health of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics (Nigeria), and Institute for International Programs at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health